Conifers do put out new leaves in spring, but it’s just a little bit more of the same. You might notice that the new needles on a fir are a little brighter than the old ones, but you would be excused if you didn’t notice any difference at all. The other reason is that the “flowers” that grow on conifers are often very small. You might be looking at a branch at arm’s length and not even see them.
|Western red cedar|
Most conifers develop buds during the winter. Western red cedar is an exception. New leaves just start growing at the leaf tips.
|Western hemlock cones and pollen cones|
The defining characteristic of conifers is that they produce cones. It is noteworthy the conifers produce two kinds of cones: The female seed cones and the male pollen cones. We are familiar with the seed cones. Some of them are quite large. However, the pollen cones are often tiny, some of them the size of a pea, some much smaller.
|Western red cedar cones and pollen cones|
Most conifers produce seed cones and pollen cones on the same tree. It’s no surprise that this presents a problem for the offspring, just as interbreeding does for other organisms. Conifers have developed several strategies for avoiding self-pollination, for example, growing seed cones at the top of the tree and pollen cones in the lower branches, or having pollen cones that mature at a different time from the seed cones.
|Pacific silver fir pollen cones before and after pollen release|
|Port Orford cedar cones|
|Ponderosa pine pollen cones|