This is a blog about the native conifers of the Pacific Northwest. It is a companion to the Northwest Conifers site. The blog will focus on timely and interesting details about our conifers, their connections to the rest of the environment, and our connection to them.

Tuesday, June 8, 2021

Focus on Redwoods

Redwood at Lady Bird Johnson Grove

The California redwoods are the most impressive conifers in the Pacific Northwest. They are notably the tallest trees in the world. They grow straight and tall to a height of over 300 feet. The world's tallest tree is a redwood named Hyperion, discovered in 2006 in Redwood National Park. It is 379 feet tall. Redwoods reach maturity at 500 years. The oldest is over 2200 years old. These giant, ancient trees also have many other exceptional, unique features.

Redwood needles are flat and lie flat on the twig like grand fir. But unlike grand fir, they point forward at an angle. Their growth pattern is optimized for growing in the shade. However, needles in the sun at the top look like the short leaves of the redwood’s cousin, the giant sequoia. When the old needles fall, the twig falls with the needles attached like two other relatives, the dawn redwood, native to China, and the bald cypress, native to the southeastern United States. 

The small, egg-shaped cones look like miniature giant sequoia cones. They are hard and woody with scales that look like lips. It’s amazing that the tiny seeds inside can grow to be the world’s tallest trees. However, redwoods have a backup plan for reproduction. They have epicormic buds in their trunk and roots. As long as the tree is healthy, the tree suppresses the growth of these buds. If the tree falls or is burned in a fire, the buds can sprout and grow. Then they become cloned trees, growing in a row on a fallen tree or in a circle around a stump. If the top of the tree is killed by fire, buds can sprout and send up multiple shoots, creating a virtual treetop forest. Moss and even soil can become part of this arial ecosystem, where birds, mammals, and reptiles thrive. The tiny red tree vole spends its entire life living in the top of a large redwood, eating its favorite food, redwood needles. However, the life of the red tree vole may be short, because it's a favorite food of the spotted owl.

The brown bark is similar to the bark of the giant sequoia, thick with deep furrows. It's quite soft to the touch, especially when wet. This thick bark is the redwood’s defense against fire and can be over 12 inches thick. 

In Oregon, redwoods grow only on the extreme southern coast near Brookings. The northern-most sites are in two groves along the Chetco River. Redwoods extend from Oregon to the central California coast, but the tallest trees are in northern California. Redwoods once had a much larger distribution across North America and even Europe and Asia. You can see a petrified redwood stump at the Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument in Colorado. 

The redwood was initially classified in the genus of the bald cypress and given the name Taxodium sempervirens in 1824. In 1847 it was placed in a new genus, Sequoia and given its present scientific name, Sequoia sempervirens. Sequoia is named after Sequoyah, the Cherokee who created a writing system for the Cherokee language. Sempervirens means evergreen. 

Most of the extensive redwood forests have been logged over the last 150 years. The largest living trees are now preserved in state parks and Redwood National Park. Managed redwood plantings on private land now produce the lumber for many uses. The wood is light, strong, and resists decay. Its beauty and color make it a favorite for siding, decking, fencing, and lawn furniture.

Redwoods at Hoyt Arboretum

You can find a planting of 90-year-old redwoods at Hoyt Arboretum in Portland. To find some larger redwoods, go to Brookings on the southern Oregon Coast. To find the tallest redwoods, you’ll have to go on to California, where you can see them at Redwood National ParkMuir Woods National MonumentJedediah Smith Redwoods State Park, and other state parks along the California Coast.

Redwoods may have ranged farther north along the Oregon Coast. You can see a large stump of a redwood on the beach south of Waldport at what is often called Big Stump Beach. According to a recent study this stump likely grew in this location, rather than being deposited on the beach from the ocean. It is located ¼ mile north of the beach access at Wakonda Beach. 

Redwood stump at Big Stump Beach

As the climate warms, more redwoods may be moving to Oregon, with the help of tree planting activists. Already, volunteers have planted some seedlings on the north slope of Humbug Mountain near Port Orford. These plantings may help combat the climate warming that led to the planting. A redwood forest stores more carbon per acre than any other ecosystem. So, planting more redwoods is an incredibly good idea.


See also

Redwoods at the Gymnosperm Database 

Redwood at Wikipedia 

Epicormic shoot at Wikipedia 

Florissant Fossil Beds 

Mystery in the Sand: Big Stump Beach 

Potential Late-Holocene Disjunction of Sequoia sempervirens on the Central Oregon Coast

Could clones save California’s endangered redwoods — in Oregon?

Wednesday, November 25, 2020

Sugar Pine

John Muir called sugar pine the “King of the Pines.” It is the tallest of all the pines and can grow to over 200 feet. You can easily recognize it by its super long cones, which are longer than the cones of any other conifer, up to 20 inches long. Unlike the curved cones of western white pine, sugar pine cones are mostly straight. They have large seeds, but the seeds have large wings, so they can float long distances on the wind.

Sugar pine is primarily a California tree, growing throughout the mountains of the state. However, it has made inroads into the Cascades of Oregon. Some grow as far north as the Mount Hood National Forest, east of the Bull of the Woods Wilderness. 

Sugar pine is a white pine with needles growing in bundles of five. The needles are bluish-green, with stomatal bloom on all three sides. Like other white pines native to the Pacific Northwest, it has been decimated by white pine blister rust. Fortunately, foresters have found trees that are resistant to the disease. Sadly, most of the large sugar pines were cut down for lumber by 1950.

Sugar pine is named after the sweet resin that oozes from wounds to the tree. According to John Muir, the sap is better than maple sap. He thought Native Americans ate it but Aljos Farjon* notes that they chewed it like chewing gum. Note to anyone wanting to eat it: It is also a laxative. However, Native Americans did eat the seeds, which are as large as the seeds of the stone pines. You can buy stone pine seeds at your local grocery, where they are sold as pine nuts. They are tasty, but likely to deplete your bank account.

David Douglas gave sugar pine its scientific name, Pinus lambertiana, named after British botanist Aylmer Bourke Lambert. Following the directions of a Native American, Douglas found a sugar pine October 26, 1826 and wrote this account of that adventure in his journal:

The large trees are destitute of branches, generally for two-thirds the length of the tree; branches pendulous, and the cones hanging from their points like small sugar-loaves in a grocer’s shop, it being only on the very largest trees that cones are seen, and the putting myself in possession of three cones (all I could) nearly brought my life to an end. Being unable to climb or hew down any, I took my gun and was busy clipping them from the branches with ball when eight Indians came at the report of my gun. They were all painted with red earth, armed with bows, arrows, spears of bone, and flint knives, and seemed to me anything but friendly. I endeavoured to explain to them what I wanted and they seemed satisfied and sat down to smoke, but had no sooner done so than I perceived one string his bow and another sharpen his flint knife with a pair of wooden pincers and hang it on the wrist of the right hand, which gave me ample testimony of their inclination. To save myself I could not do by flight, and without any hesitation I went backwards six paces and cocked my gun, and then pulled from my belt one of my pistols, which I held in my left hand. I was determined to fight for life. As I as much as possible endeavoured to preserve my coolness and perhaps did so, I stood eight or ten minutes looking at them and they at me without a word passing, till one at last, who seemed to be the leader, made a sign for tobacco, which I said they should get on condition of going and fetching me some cones. They went, and as soon as out of sight I picked up my three cones and a few twigs, and made a quick retreat to my camp, which I gained at dusk.**


See also

Sugar pine at Northwest Conifers

Sugar pine at Wikopedia

Conifers of the World, James Eckenwalder

*A Handbook of the World’s Conifers, Aljos Farjon

** Sugar pine at the Gymnosperm Database


Friday, November 13, 2020

Bird Calls

 One of the great gifts to hikers in the Pacific Northwest is the sound of birds in the forests. Even if you are not a dedicated birder, you can enjoy their chatter. However, you can enhance the experience if you can recognize the calls and songs of different birds. Bird songs are mostly heard in the spring and summer, so fall is a good time to focus on simple calls. Here are some of the calls of common birds heard in the forests of the Northwest. 

American robin. The American robin is a familiar sight in both cities and forests. It has a large vocabulary. The “tut,” “peak," and “whinny,” here are the most common calls. You will commonly see robins pulling earthworms from your yard.
Steller’s jay. Has a series of loud, harsh calls, often in conifer forests. The first three here are common. They also imitate other birds, especially red-tail hawks, probably a good strategy to clear their territory of competing species. Steller’s jays eat conifer seeds, nuts, acorns, and berries. 

Northern flicker. This call is similar to the typical call of a Douglas squirrel. Like most woodpeckers, the northern flicker also drums on trees to communicate with other birds.

Pileated Woodpecker.
This large woodpecker has a loud “cuk cuk cuk cuk” call that echoes through the woods. You can recognize it by its bright red cap. “Pileated” is Latin for “capped.”

Crows are common in cities, often in large flocks, so its “caw” call is all too familiar. 

The common raven is larger and its call is deeper and more resonant. Its translation is “Nevermore.” Ravens are often seen in pairs.

This is one of my favorite little birds, but it is very self-centered: It keeps saying its name, sometimes adding “dee dee dee” at the end. You may hear any of these, but the black-capped chickadee is the most common:
Black-capped chickadee
Chestnut-backed chickadee (pictured)
Mountain chickadee

Red-breasted Nuthatch. Like the knights* who say “Nee,” this little bird also says “Nee,” but much more softly. Also, it never demands a shrubbery. You can see it walking down the trunk of trees eating small insects as it goes.

*Monty Python and the Holy Grail

Spotted Towhee. This ground feeder looks similar to a robin, but it is slightly smaller. It seems to have a hearing deficiency, because it keeps saying, “What?” 

Walk quietly and listen for these birds when hiking in our forests. You may hear some friendly voices calling from the trees.


More info

A Beginner’s Guide to Common Bird Sounds


All About Birds

Birding by Ear