Western white pine doesn’t have the charm and stature of ponderosa pine with its golden bark and lofty height, but this white pine does have many subtle, attractive qualities. It grows straight and tall when given a chance, sometimes to a height of nearly 200 feet. The needles grow in bundles of five and have a blue-green color. The cones have a distinctive banana shape and are longer than any other Northwestern conifer except sugar pine cones. The gray bark breaks into rectangular plates on large trees. Another distinctive feature is the sticky resin on the cone scales. You will often see cones on the ground under a western white pine, and if you pick one up, don’t be surprised if you have sticky fingers. You were warned.
Western white pine was once abundant in its range, but disease and logging have greatly reduced its numbers. As with many other white pines, the bane of western white pine is white pine blister rust, a fungus introduced in North America from Europe over 100 years ago. Although the extensive stands of western white pine have been decimated by blister rust, the species has developed some resistance to the disease, and the Forest Service has a program for breeding rust-resistant trees. For more information, look here. Bark beetles also attack western white pine, especially after they have been weakened by blister rust.
Western white pine wood is described as nonresinous — no surprise, since it seems to send all that sticky resin to the cones. The wood is soft, straight and stable in character, which make it desirable for making moldings and window and door frames. The wood is light, attractive, and easy to work, making it ideal for wood carving. In the past, it was the primary source of match sticks.
There appear to be few genetic differences between western white pines in different locations in the Pacific Northwest. So you can collect seeds from one habitat or elevation and successfully grow them elsewhere. The trees can readily adapt to different growing conditions. However, California populations do seem to be genetically distinct from those in the Northwest. The California trees are more resistant to white pine blister rust.